For the occurrence of allergic diseases, there are both genetic factors – the so-called family burden and the environmental factors. The tendency to increase the number of patients with different types of allergies is mainly explained by the factors of the environment and their influence on the expression of the genes.
The problem of the growing number of allergens is explained by both the rapid pace of industrialization and the growing international trade in clashing with new foods, plants, chemicals that contain unknown substances that turn into potential allergens for the body. It is not a coincidence that in the developed countries the percentage of the population with allergies is sometimes higher than that in developing countries.
Knowing the risk factors allows for prevention of their effects by eliminating them or at least avoiding them.
The most general separation of the types of allergens can be made by separating them into irritants in enclosed and outdoor areas.
In enclosed premises – in the home or workplace (offices, cabinets), there is the presence of mold, mold, some indoor plants (ficus). Pets are also concerned with sensitized persons.
Poor ventilation and the rare opening of windows are factors for increasing the concentration of pollutants in the rooms.
Materials used in construction often contain different chemicals, some of which are in higher concentrations dangerous to health. For example, a commonly used chemical agent is formaldehyde, some ketone group compounds, and others.
In Europe, with regard to frequently cited causes of respiratory allergies, there are micro-acarids in domestic dust. An increased concentration of mites also occurs in older mattresses, pillows, soft sofas, armchairs.
As professional allergens and irritants, wood dust is reported for harvesting; flour for chefs, bakers; some medications for pharmacists, lesser dentists, anesthesiologists; chemicals in the textile industry, manicurists, hairdressers; latex (gloves) for medical workers.
With regard to outdoor risk factors, atmospheric air pollution is reported in larger cities. Exhaust gases from cars and from industry including sulfur and nitrogen compounds, carbon monoxide, particulate matter of different sizes, and others. Cigarette smoke for passive smokers also poses a risk because of the various gases – carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide and carcinogens.
Exposure to passive smoking in children increases the risk of developing an allergy. Similar is the tendency for the fetus during pregnancy when the mother is an active smoker. The use of solid fuel is also relevant for indoor and ambient air pollution.
The potential of pollen as an allergen is increased several times in urban conditions due to the adhesion of particulate diesel fuel, which, together with the pollen dust, is becoming the so- complex parts. These complexes have a strong allergenic potential and cause sensitization even at lower concentration doses.
Climate change affects dust retention in air, pollen duration, and airborne leakage. They can affect both the frequency and the severity of the symptoms.
Pollutants in the air have an impact on the course of airway infections Many of these pollutants have pro-oxidative effects that contribute to airway inflammation. At the same time, they modify the response to allergens and increase the risk of allergic diseases. Air quality and control are an important factor in the prevention of allergic diseases and a condition for reducing exacerbations.
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